Skin diseases (dermatoses) are diseases that mainly affect the skin itself. But they can also impact the sebaceous and sweat glands, the hair, or the nails. The skin reacts to external stimuli, such as pathogens, cold, heat, radiation, toxins, or drugs.
The most common skin conditions are:
Dermatology medications differ in the way they are used:
External medications also differ depending on the base on which they are made. The base determines the dosage form and the properties of the drug used by the patient.
Fatty bases (anhydrous bases), such as Vaseline, smooth out rough, cracked skin, so they are the remedy of choice for very dry and flaky skin. The disadvantage, however, is that they prevent water and heat from escaping and leave behind a pronounced oily sheen.
Liquid bases, such as water or alcohol, have a cooling effect and soothe itching. Alcohol also has a disinfectant effect. They make it easier to distribute the active ingredient over a large area of skin and do not stick to the hair. However, if used frequently, such products dry out the skin.
Solid bases, such as talcum powder, starch, or zinc oxide. Such products are good at absorbing secretions like sweat. Because of their drying properties, they are not suitable for very dry skin.
The most common dermatological medication form is an emulsion. Emulsions have high water content. Therefore, they contain a small amount of fat, while providing a large amount of moisture to the dermis.
In addition, the high water content results in a cooling effect that relieves itching. Emulsions are easy to apply, absorb quickly, and do not leave a greasy film. Emulsions, on the other hand, have a high fat or oil content. They carry a lot of grease on the skin.
To provide individualized dermatological therapy, the doctor prescribes not only off-the-shelf medications as external agents, but also individually selected for the patient dosage forms (creams, lotions, etc.) available in the pharmacy. A patient may be prescribed a basic medication (e.g., a basic lotion, a basic cream, or a basic ointment). Basal preparations, by definition, do not contain any medications.
The most important groups of active ingredients used externally in dermatology are:
Anti-inflammatory drugs to treat mild inflammation.
Cortisone suppresses all inflammation in the skin. There are many cortisone preparations that vary in their activity.
The higher the activity, the more likely the treated skin will show side effects: dilated capillaries, acne, permanent thinning of the skin or increased hair growth.
When used on a long-term or large scale, highly effective medications also lead to the common side effects typical of cortisone administration. Despite these disadvantages, in some cases, Cortisone is an irreplaceable active ingredient that cannot be replaced by any other medication.
Immunosuppressants, such as Tacrolimus, have only recently begun to be used in dermatology. Like Cortisone, they interfere with the immune system and suppress inflammation, but without side effects.
Antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections, such as erythromycin to treat common acne.
Antifungal agents to treat fungal infections, such as Amorolfine in nail polish for toenail fungus.
Antiviral drugs are used to treat viral infections, such as Acyclovir for herpes.
Antihistamines prevent the action of histamine in allergies and thus soothe itching.
Local anesthetics have a local anesthetic effect. They are mainly used to relieve pain during medical interventions, such as skin biopsies.
Keratolytics serve to remove calluses or scales, such as salicylic acid for calluses.
Some skin conditions require systemic drug treatment. In such cases, medication must be taken internally. This is especially necessary if there are extensive skin changes or severe forms of the disease.
Also, internal administration of dermatology medications is necessary if the active substance cannot penetrate the skin barrier due to its chemical and physical properties.
Ointments, creams, gels, tinctures, cleansing lotions and many other acne remedies are available in supermarkets and pharmacies. For mild forms of acne, antibacterial (antiseptic) cleansers and skin care products (lotion, toner, cream) can help. However, in severe cases, they do not have enough effect.
Therefore, if the pimples do not go away for a long time, and the complexion is constantly deteriorating, it is advisable to see a dermatologist to treat acne.
For external treatment in mild and moderate forms of acne, the doctor prescribes antibiotics (such as erythromycin and clindamycin) in the form of ointments and anti-acne creams. These reduce the number of bacteria on the skin.
Skin-renewing peels also help to treat acne locally. They are mostly made from natural fruit acids. Salicylic acid or vitamin A acid is also used for acne.
Peels are applied to the affected areas of the skin and left on for a certain amount of time. They help exfoliate the top layers of the skin and prevent the dermis from keratinizing. The skin looks fresher and the number of black dots decreases.
It is important to apply a lot of cream to the skin after using an acne peel (such as a peel with fruit acids). Usually, acne treatment with peels is carried out in a course – six to eight applications are made within four weeks. More frequent use is not recommended, as there can be adverse effects such as inflammation, pain, etc.
The most common remedies in the treatment of dermatological diseases are gels and ointments. The active ingredient is determined according to the problem and skin type.
In addition to skincare products, oral antihistamines are also suitable for the treatment of allergic skin conditions and urticaria.
The following active ingredients are preferred: Cetirizine, Desloratadine, Levocetirizine, and Loratadine, which do not cause fatigue or cause it only slightly.
The following skin medications are often prescribed for skin conditions: Fenistil Gel, Canesten Extra Cream, Ebenol 0.5% Cream, LINOLA Oily Cream, Soventol Hydrocort 0.5% Cream, Soventol Gel, Lorano Tablets, Linola 0.5% Cream.