Diazepam (Mexico) is a tranquilizer that is prescribed for a variety of nervous system disorders and psychiatric disorders. The active ingredient is characterized by anticonvulsant, sedative, hypnotic, and central myorelaxant effects.
Diazepam's effectiveness lies in increasing the concentration of the mediator GABA, which inhibits nervous system activity. The drug increases the sensitivity of neuronal cell membranes to the mediator. The anticonvulsant and myorelaxant effect is provided by the effect on the neurons of the cortical centers and the spinal cord.
Diazepam for sleep is prescribed due to its soporific and sedative effect. The drug relieves emotional tension and a constant feeling of anxiety. Diazepam is used for seizures due to its relaxing effect on muscles, anticonvulsant effect.
Diazepam is prescribed for dizziness, for neurosis, which is manifested by insomnia, anxiety, fear, tension. The drug is effective in psychosomatic disorders, which are accompanied by emotional manifestations, spastic paralysis, epilepsy. In alcoholism, the active substance helps to get rid of the abstinence syndrome. The drug is prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia.
Diazepam dosage 10 mg reaches the maximum concentration in the blood in 1-2 hours. The amount of the active substance in the body gradually decreases after 6 hours. Passes through the blood-brain barrier and the placental barrier. The drug is transformed into active metabolites in the liver. The main active metabolite reaches the maximum concentration in the blood after 24-36 hours.
The half-life of the drug occurs 20-70 hours after administration. The drug and its metabolites are excreted in the urine.
Diazepam dosage 10 mg is determined individually, taking into account the patient's condition, the effect of treatment. It is necessary to start therapy with a minimum dose, which is enough to relieve the main symptoms of the disease. The duration of treatment of insomnia is not longer than 4 weeks. Therapy of anxiety states should not last longer than 8-12 weeks, including withdrawal of the drug, which is carried out gradually.
The dosage of the drug depends on the disease.
Unreasonable anxiety 5-30 mg per day
Insomnia with anxiety disorder 5-15 mg before bedtime
Muscle spasms 5-15 mg 2-3 times a day
Spasms caused by cerebral etiology, 2-60 mg daily.
Diazepam dosage 10 mg is withdrawn gradually. With prolonged therapy, more time is needed for withdrawal. The medication is not administered to children without an assessment of need. In the case of treatment of children, its duration should be kept to a minimum.
Symptoms of overdose include drowsiness, decreased reflexes, drop in blood pressure, respiratory depression, and coma. Respiratory impairment is severe. Coma may last for several hours, complications in elderly patients are possible. Overdose is aggravated by alcohol.
In case of overdose, symptomatic treatment in the hospital is carried out. Activated charcoal should be taken to prevent absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. If the patient has lost consciousness, it may be necessary to do a piece of breathing. The antidote to diazepam is flumazenil, which should be used when the central nervous system is depressed. The antidote is characterized by a fast half-life - 1 hour, so the patient needs to be carefully monitored in the hospital.
The drug should not be taken in case of individual intolerance of individual components. The drug is not prescribed in severe respiratory failure, nighttime apnea syndrome. It is possible to aggravate the condition when receiving patients with renal insufficiency. Treatment with the drug is contraindicated in phobias and obsessive states, chronic psychosis. Because of overdose risk, disturbance of concentration, and nervous and respiratory system functioning, the drug is not prescribed to patients with alcohol and drug addiction. It is contraindicated during pregnancy and lactation.
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